Kenneth Harding: A Passion for the Viola

by Tom Tatton

Kenneth Harding (1903–1992), at age seventy-five, was told by his physician to put down his viola for health reasons. Mr. Harding, a man of many admirable qualities, enjoyed an acute sense of humor. He wrote: “Thank heavens, my pen is light enough. And, a composer is probably the only musician who can take his time and direct the performers to play quarter note = mm 300! And, put in semi quavers [sixteenth notes] for good measure.”1

The truth is, in spite of his humor, Harding’s music, while challenging, is finely wrought with carefully etched lines. Who could not enjoy a composer who writes a melody like the first viola theme from Moonlit Apples? (ex. 1)

Example 1. Harding, Moonlit Apples, mm. 3–19.

kenhardingex.1

Ex. 1 Sound Recording

This quiet man from the town of Abertillery, Wales, attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth where he studied composition with Sir Walford Davies. As a youngster he studied violin and turned to the viola when Raymond Jeremy2 left the College Quartet for London’s Royal Academy of Music. Harding joined the short-lived National Orchestra of Wales in 1927 and in 1930 became a founding member of the BBC Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Sir Adrian Boult. He married Enid (his second wife), a quiet but sprightly lady who fully appreciated Kenneth’s music, and together they raised a son. This might have summed up Kenneth Harding’s modest, orderly, calm life except for his prolific pen!

Kenneth Harding enjoyed composing and stealthily wrote a large body of music over the span of some seventy-odd years. His music includes several works for large orchestra, many of which were performed by the BBC Symphony Orchestra; several chamber pieces, including works published by Boosey & Hawkes and Murdock & Murdock; songs; solo keyboard pieces; carols; and much school music. His best work, and of special interest here, are his compositions for viola and viola ensemble. When, in 1930, he joined the BBC Symphony Orchestra, he came into a section of prideful violists: a viola section first led by the venerable Bernard Shore3 and, beginning in 1946, by the indefatigable Harry Danks.4 During this same time period, the incomparable Lionel Tertis was scurrying around England creating great public interest in the viola.5

VIOLA REPERTOIRE

Kenneth Harding’s pen began to write incredibly varied and beautiful music for the viola soon after he joined the BBC Symphony Orchestra. 1931 saw the Poem No. 1 for viola and piano dedicated to Bernard Shore.6 Shortly after World War II Harding wrote a violin/viola duet entitled Scherzo (Enigma) published by J & W Chester in 1950. The first of his many ensemble pieces came in form of the 1949 Divertimento,7 for four violas, which was written for and dedicated to Harry Danks and performed by his colleagues in the orchestra. In 1950, with Harry Danks, Jacqueline Townsend, and Stanley Wootten, Kenneth Harding performed a successful radio broadcast of the Divertimento that was almost immediately repeated. Quickly following the Divertimento was the 1950 Concerto for Viola and Orchestra and the Concertante, for four violas (a fifth viola line was added in 19728) written for and dedicated to Lionel Tertis, and the 1952 Duet Rhapsody, for soprano and viola. In 1956, Kammersymphonie (Nonet), was composed for nine solo violas and then the Sonatina, for viola duet, in 1960. After a pause of some eighteen years came a rush of creativity: the Idyll: “June Sunrise—Blue Sky” in July of 1978— arguably his best work—and in February 1979, the Sonata, both dedicated to the present writer.9 During the last ten years, Kenneth Harding created a bountiful array of works for viola:

  • Suite, for three violas, August 1980
  • Metamorphosen (Nonet), for solo viola and string orchestra, 1981 (written at the suggestion of John White)
  • Moonlit Apples, a tone poem for viola and piano, August 1985 (see endnote 21)
  • Sunset Paradise, for seven violas, November 1988
  • Renata da Capo, for ten violas, May 1987
  • Rondo Capriccio, for six violas, May 1988
  • Phantasy-Scherzo, for four violas, March 1990
  • Where the Willows Meet, for viola and piano, August 199010

Much of Kenneth Harding’s music is in manuscript, and little of it is known by those who would appreciate it. Currently Comus Edition (http://www.comusedition.com) is preparing several of Kenneth Harding’s viola pieces for publication (see below under Notable Pieces). The key to this obscurity is again in Kenneth Harding’s personality as observed by Harry Danks: “In those days he always appeared to me as a serious and dedicated musician though I found him difficult to know. Having been brought up in a poor but never the less open-hearted family atmosphere I could not understand him; Kenneth puzzled me.”11 Harding’s modesty is also expressed in a letter to me: “Our John White wants me to write an article on my music for the newsletter [British Viola Research Society—John White, editor]. I cannot bring myself to do it Tom. I blush to my back collar stud at the very thought of it. Blowing my own trumpet produces a very feeble sound, it’s nothing to compare with the sotto-voce sound brought forth by the backroom boy in the privacy of his music room.”12

INFLUENCES

Music is never created in a vacuum; it is always the outpouring of composite influences in combination with the God-given gifts of the composer. So it was with Kenneth Harding. His father, Amos, was organist and choirmaster at St. Michael’s in Abertillery. Amos saw to it that both Kenneth and his younger brother, Ronald, enjoyed music lessons. Kenneth was playing violin professionally in the local cinema by his early teens.13 In the early 1920s, Kenneth enrolled at the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth. There he came under the tutelage of Sir Walford Davies (1869–1941) who, in addition to his professorship at the University, was Chair of the Welsh National Council of Music until his death in 1941. The influence of Davies cannot be overestimated. Philip Clark mentions that Walford Davies strongly encouraged him in the study of musical classics.14 Harding told of “being caught carrying the ‘modern’ scores of Vaughan Williams and Holst from the library. However, Davies told him to put them back and instead take out the Brahms Fourth. Harding returned to the library, obstinately removing another modern score he wanted to study. Davies and he eventually became good friends.”15 Even in 1979 Kenneth Harding writes: “My best experience in chamber music was gained under my professor, the late Sir Walford Davies, one-time Master of the King’s Music. He was the toughest critic of my viola playing in the College Quartet and especially in composition. Both came under his expert care, in fact I cannot estimate the value of my association with him.”16

The Welsh musical tradition—commensurate with the “English Renaissance”—and worldwide nationalism played an enormous role in the compositions of Kenneth Harding.  One does not find “folk-song” quotations, but his music is never far from that tradition.

Harding’s primary occupation was his thirty-five year professional association with the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the first twenty years under the direction of the eminent Sir Adrian Boult. Sir Adrian developed the ensemble into a world-class orchestra. To the young Harding, performing the most contemporary British works of Elgar, Delius, Vaughan Williams, Ireland, Bax, Bliss, Walton, and Britten must have been inspiring and almost as compositionally influential as his performance encounters with Richard Strauss, Busoni, Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Hindemith, and Poulenc.

It cannot be surprising that Harding’s music for viola came pouring out of his pen immediately after joining the BBC Symphony Orchestra. The first leader of the ensemble was Bernard Shore followed in 1946 by Harry Danks. Others in the section, over the years, were the wonderful yet not quite so famous violists who added their thread to the musical fabric of England and their influence on Kenneth Harding. John Coulling,17 Gwynne Edwards,18 Jacqueline Townsend, and Stanley Wootton were colleagues and friends who performed much of the music that Harding wrote.

It is not possible to overestimate the influence that Lionel Tertis had on all aspects of the viola world—performing, instrument making, teaching, and yes, composing. Harding’s 1950 Concertante for four violas was dedicated to Tertis. Equally important was Tertis’s promotion of both the Divertimento and the Concertante as viable concert music.19 Lastly, Tertis was, early on, singularly responsible for the popularity of the viola, the expansion of viola repertoire, and the ever-expanding technique on the instrument during the first half of the twentieth century. Nothing was lost on Kenneth Harding.

Kenneth Harding drew inspiration from multiple sources. The score for the Sonatina, for two violas, completed in January 1960 indicates it is dedicated to two of Harding’s “friends and colleagues and inspired by a built-up theme by Miss Wolstencroft [one of the two friends] and myself.  It is an ‘accidental’ tune composed in three-note turns!”

It is this author’s friendship that inspired Idyll: “June Sunrise—Blue Sky”: “Since the day we met, I developed a very healthy appreciation for your wonderful work in the field of viola research. I felt the only way I could express a tribute to your gallant efforts is to compose something for you. Should you like the piece permit me to dedicate it to you. It is written for a lot of solo viola players and that is about all I can say now except I believe it is my best effort in chamber music.”20

Harding, fond of English poetry, drew inspiration from various authors. A short poem by John Drinkwater (1882–1937) inspired Moonlit Apples.21 And, the 1979 Sonata, dedicated to the present author (and Harry Danks), is inspired by and based on lines written by English poet Charles Kingsley (1819–1875).

It did not take much to inspire Kenneth Harding to write music for viola; he loved the viola, the people who played, taught, and wrote about the viola, or those who just carried one around. His humor was his rock; at the youthful age seventy-six he wrote: “Happily, it is nice to be able to wield a pen instead of a fiddle-bow; little effort & I can ‘make’ huge (mental) noises for orchestra or even a dozen violas after midnight. That is the fun of being a composer, he makes the bullets, the performer pulls the trigger and the audience is the target! Poor luckless things.”22

PERFORMANCES

There have been several “signal” performances of Kenneth Harding’s music:

1950: multiple BBC broadcasts of Divertimento,

1950: Dec. 4 Wigmore Hall concert organized by Tertis. The review in the Times (London) on December 5, 1950 said “It must be admitted that in Mr. Kenneth Harding’s Concertante and Divertimento there was something feline about the noise they made when they all spoke at once.”

1970s–1980s: Numerous concerts given by Tom Tatton and his students at Whittier College.

1972: Dec. 29 Wigmore Hall concert celebrating Tertis’s ninety-sixth birthday. This concert featured Harding’s rescoring of the Concertante for five violas (originally for four violas).

1980: March 13 Royal Academy of Music concert celebrating Harding’s seventy-seventh birthday. Nine viola compositions by Harding were performed.

1989: June 24 concert at the 17th International Viola Congress featuring Idyll: “June Sunrise—Blue Sky.”

2003: Aug. 26 Centenary Tribute concert at the Lionel Tertis International Viola Competition and Workshop, featuring several compositions.

COMPOSITIONAL STYLE

Style is as difficult to completely ascribe as it is to describe. Harry Danks speaks of Harding’s music as “always intensely personal and unashamedly romantic in idiom.”23 Philip Clark postures that “it is not, in fact, terribly difficult to make sense of, and is refreshingly free of the usual ‘twentieth-century influences.’ It is intensely personal, charmingly direct and persuasive, and blatant in its romantic impressionism.”24 My observations coincide with both Danks and Clark regarding the lyrical, personal romantic melodic style—examine the melody for Moonlit Apples above. Notice the melody: it has sometimes angular, often chromatic lines, with asymmetrical phrases and builds from dissimilar chromatic motifs while creating an organic, beautiful whole. In all his pieces, Harding’s harmonic style can generally be characterized as predominantly triadic with carefully spaced chordal groupings and clusters with continually shifting tonal centers and resting tones. He stretches traditional harmonic principles to an extreme, yet never crosses totally into “atonality.” He creates and uses chromatic scales that have a sense of modality/harmony about them, yet they are typically neither.

Harding’s writing easily moves from homophonic themes (both accompanied and unaccompanied), to polyphonic lines, to contrapuntal and fugal writing; all usually within a lighter texture. His rhythms are fluid and often complex—with frequent use of hemiola and syncopation—with a romantic sense of rubato and flexibility. His palette is complete; exploring the entire range of the viola and using a variety of string techniques including all manner of harmonics, flautando, senza vibrato, sul ponticello, shimmering tremolos, and pizzicato. He has a subtle and nuanced sense of balance and dynamics in all his pieces. All this creates music that is not “easy” to play, but worth the effort. Harry Danks points out that in preparation for the first performance of the Divertimento that the ensemble spent hours in rehearsal under Harding’s direction.25 Once learned, it was performed multiple times to great success.

NOTABLE PIECES

Moonlit Apples (in manuscript—soon to be available from Comus Edition, John White, editor), completed March 1979, inspired by this poem by John Drinkwater (1882–1937):

At the top of the house the apples are laid in rows,
And the skylight lets the moonlight in, and those
Apples are deep-sea apples of green. There goes
A cloud on the moon in the autumn night.

This musical picture fashions an eerie, chilly autumn night creating shifting colors from dull black, to glistening silver, to cold white. This brief piece—only eighty-five measures in length—embraces the techniques mentioned above in a distinctly mid to high tessitura. Kenneth Harding’s postscript included in the score:

“Tempo” allowance for (in imagination) cloud movement approaching—covering—passing the moon on a quiet, serene night during autumn. Never loud but always gentle in its sense of peace.”

The Sonata (in manuscript—soon to be available from Comus Edition), completed February 11, 1979, was dedicated to this author (and Harry Danks), but partially inspired by these Charles Kingsley (1819–1875) lines:

I watch the stream sweep onward to the sea,
I watch them drift—the old familiar faces,
I watch them drift—the youthful aspirations,
Shores, landmarks, beacons, drift alike.
Yet overhead the boundless arch of heaven
Still fades to night, still blazes into day

This work opens with an Adagio marked “Very remote, slow, free and without accents.” Without a break, only a slight pause, the Presto is a lively jig in 3/8 with spirited dialogue between viola and piano. A slow cantabile section recaptures the opening mood with suggestions of repeated melodic fragments. Quickly again the jig drives to the end.  Harding offers these words on the score for performance: “The slow music is quiet, dark, uncertain night. The quick music—day activity, life really on the move.”

Sonatina, for two violas (in manuscript soon to be available from Comus Edition), completed January 26, 1960:

Such fun.  Knowing what you now know about Kenneth Harding can you feel the “allegretto” mirth that went into creating this theme with his friend Joan Wolstencroft (ex. 2)?

Example 2. Harding, Sonatina, mm. 1–8.

kenhardingex2

Ex. 2 Sound Recording

The entire three-movement piece explores and develops this “built-up” theme. The first Allegretto transitions smoothly into an Allegro vivace. Cantabile melodies, witty and playful accompaniments, and quick dialogue complete the first movement. A very quick transition leads to a muted Lento espressivo. This second movement pours out a plaintive, soulful melody that does not lose touch with our “built-up” theme; yet another transition into the Presto third movement. This last movement is as impressive as it is energetic; still “playing” with our theme. This delightful piece ends with an anticipated recapitulated Allegretto bringing to a conclusion a more-than-fun piece.

Divertimento, finished and presented to Harry Danks in August, 1949. Published by and available from Corda Music Publications, edited by John White. (http://www.cordamusic.co.uk.)

In three short movements the Divertimento was the first of many viola ensemble pieces. It enjoyed early success with the 1950 BBC Radio broadcasts on January 4, February 15, and March 11.

The first movement, Aubade (the morning equivalent to “night” music), begins with a twisting, chromatic melody in a “free and easy tempo” sporting subtle and intricate rhythms. A loose ABABA form frames the kaleidoscope of rhythms and colors leading to the second movement, Carol Variations. The theme of the variations is a simple folk-like melody set with flowing arpeggiated accompaniment. Each of the seven variations moves farther away from the theme until we reach the third movement: Rondo Capriccio. The Rondo opens with a virtuoso fugal exposition, uses memorable melodic and rhythmic material from the previous two movements, and drives to the end with a surprise resonating pizzicato D major chord to conclude the piece.

This difficult but exciting piece is well worth the effort of four skilled violists, as Harry Danks discovered.

Rondo Capriccio, completed in May, 1986, for six violas is available from Corda Music Publications, general editor John White.

Example 3. Harding, Rondo Capriccio, Theme A, mm. 8–21.

kenhardingex3

Ex. 3 Sound Recording

This is quintessential Kenneth Harding: unbounded intriguing melodies, chromatic ingenuity held together by crisp and memorable rhythmic cells used both within melodic material and accompaniment.

Theme A (ex. 3) is a playful dance containing the rhythmic cells that are the tissue that glues the piece together. A brief theme B grows from the rhythms of theme A. The C theme (ex. 4) is more expressive with an accompaniment of the restless sixteenth notes of the A theme.

Example 4. Harding, Rondo Capriccio, mm. 55–65.

kenhardingex4

Ex. 4 Sound Recording

The brief D theme is more compact with a homophonic, rather placid calm accompaniment—soon to change. The E theme begins as a canon but quickly dissipates; it returns to the canon only to have the theme forcefully stated by viola four and five in unison.

Theme F is again more lyrical but with a restless accompaniment of the opening rhythmic cells, which prepares us for a complete restatement of theme A in canon (ex. 5), a return of theme D, followed by Theme D and A in a duet (ex. 6).  After a brief return of theme A, the music drives the six violas to an exciting end.

Example 5. Harding, Rondo Capriccio, mm. 209–36.

kenhardingex5

Ex. 5 Sound Recording

Example 6. Harding, Rondo Capriccio, mm. 260–73.

kenhardingex6

Ex. 6 Sound Recording

Rondo Capriccio is a memorable piece that requires six accomplished violists all willing to work out the intricacies, as would musicians preparing a finely written string quartet.

Idyll: “June Sunrise—Blue Sky,”
completed July 29, 1978, for twelve solo violas is subtitled on the manuscript: “A tone-picture of a viewed scene from an English garden near Harrow-on-the-Hill.”

This is, by many accounts, Kenneth Harding’s best work for viola ensemble. Harry Danks wrote: “1978 saw what is in my opinion one of Kenneth’s finest compositions, June Sunrise—Blue Sky: View from an English Garden.”26

Idyll enjoyed two sources of inspiration. In Harding’s words: “The Idyll is intended for acceptance as a tone-picture recording my impressions of a delightful dawn. I was awake about 5:15 and found myself compelled to go out for a stroll in my garden. Birds were singing away for dear life as the sun came over the Harrow-on-the Hill, and I noted some of their quaint phrases on a bit of mss. paper; one blackbird I noted some valuable inspiration in particular.”27 The second inspiration to report is this author’s appreciative self. Kenneth Harding concocted a method to translate my name into a musical theme, and that theme appears several times in various forms throughout the work (ex. 7).

Example 7. Harding
, Idyll: “June Sunrise—Blue Sky,” mm. 231–4.

A = A, H, O, V
B = B, I, P, W
C = C, J, Q, X
D = D, K, R, Y
E = E, L, S, Z
F = F, M, T
G = G, N, U

kenhardingex7

Idyll is divided into three quartets: quartet one includes harmonics and other effects, quartet two holds much of the musical substance of the work, while quartet three includes, among other musical properties, pizzicato and various bowings. The principal violas are one, five, and nine with five in charge of the full ensemble if no conductor is used.

The 273 measure work is organized in a rondo form: ABACDABA with the opening A section, Lento molto sostenuto, stating the bird calls, not unlike Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony. The piece includes some of Harding’s best writing with lively interplay, rich viola textures, singable melodies all ending in the way it began: 5:15 in the morning with the blackbird chirping quaint phrases disappearing with a lightly strummed F major chord.

CONCLUSION

Our history as violists is the mirror by which we understand ourselves. The ribbon of our journey is sometimes very thin and somewhat tattered, yet it is often extremely bold and robust. It is separate from, but often overlaps, the journey of our violin, cello, and bass colleagues. This history of ours is not simply the “big names” all can recite but, mostly the cadre of violists who added their thread and embroidered this ribbon that binds all serious violists in one common story.

Kenneth Harding was one such violist. This modest and quiet Abertillery man gifted all violists with much wonderful music ready to be played and quietly waiting to be heard.  As Philip Clark observed, there are several natural obstacles to overcome in performing Harding’s compositions: the fact that these works of interest are for a less than common medium—viola ensemble; they have previously been difficult to come by; and the manuscripts are not easy to read much less perform. Violists cannot wait for some musicologist to uncover this wonderful repertoire nor wait for some professional viola ensemble to record these works. We need to reach out and grab our history; grab our heritage. The work of John White, Ian Gammie at Corda Music, and Michael Dennison at Comus Publications is opening the door for violists to walk through and add their thread to our ribbon of history by making Harding’s music come alive through performance.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Without the assistance of many knowledgeable, interested and supportive professionals including those listed below this article would not have been possible.

Robert Barnett: Classical Editor, MusicWeb International; and Editor, British Music Society Newsletter.

David M. Bynog: Assistant Head of Acquisitions, Fondren Library, Rice University; and Editor of the Journal of the American Viola Society.

Philip Clark:  Violist, teacher, conductor, and author now living in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Michael Dennison: Music Arranger and Publisher, Comus Edition, Heirs House Lane, Colne, Lancashire, BBB 9TA, UK (http://www.comusedition.com).

Lewis Foreman: Writer, publisher, and editor of Triad Press.

Ian Gammie: Publisher, Corda Music Publications, 183 Rd. St. Albans, Herts AL3 5AN Great Britain (http://www.cordamusic.co.uk).

Keith Jones: North American Ambassador for the Welsh Music Guild; publisher of Welsh Music.

National Library of Wales: Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales SY23 3BU.

Anwen Pierce, Assistant Librarian, National Library of Wales.

Tully Potter: Writer and author who enjoys an immense knowledge of violas, violists, and viola literature.

John White, FRAM, was an immense help. Editor, arranger, author, and friend, he is a prominent viola teacher and performer. In 2000 he was awarded one of the International Viola Society’s highest awards, the Crystal Award for Distinctive Achievements, for distinguished scholarship and contributions to the viola.

Thomas Tatton is a recently retired string specialist with the Lincoln Unified School District in Stockton, California. Formerly violist and director of orchestras at Whittier College and the University of the Pacific, he holds a D.M.A. from the University of Illinois.  He was president of the American Viola Society from 1994 to 1998 and recently served as the vice-president of the International Viola Society.

Notes

1Letter from Kenneth Harding to Tom Tatton, December 15, 1978.

2 “Raymond Jeremy,” in An Anthology of British Viola Players, compiled and ed. John White (Colne, England: Comus Edition, 1997), 141–2.

3 Tully Potter, “Bernard Shore,” in British Viola Players (see note 2), 199–201.

4 “Harry Danks,” in British Viola Players (see note 2), 75–6.

5 The twentieth century’s first viola virtuoso. See John White, Lionel Tertis: The First Great Virtuoso of the Viola (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2006).

6 This composition has traditionally been referred to as Poem No. 2. However, the

manuscript cataloged in the National Library of Wales refers to it as Poem No. 1, for viola (or cello) and piano; Ink score, November 1931. “To Bernard Shore.” Viola part, ink. November 1931. E-mail message from Anwen Pierce to Tom Tatton, March 9, 2009.

7 Published by Corda Music Publications, CMP 636, and edited by John White.

8 Harry Danks explains the decision to rescore: “The meeting of Tertis and Kenneth during this concert (referring to the December 4, 1950, performance) resulted in another composition for four violas, Concertante, which he dedicated to Tertis. Twenty-two years later, when Tertis was organizing a recital of music for viola ensemble, it was suggested to Kenneth that he might add a fifth viola line to the Concertante, to which he agreed.” See Harry Danks, “Kenneth Harding,” in British Viola Players (see note 2), 115-16.

9 Kenneth Harding had the habit of assigning a dedication or inscription on   copies of the same work to more than one person. This gives the impression that that person was the sole dedicatee. Idyll: “June Sunrise—Blue Sky” is one example. Harry Danks, John White, and I each have individual dedications on this work. Letter from John White to Tom Tatton, April 3, 2009.

10 Several sources also indicate a viola piece entitled Legend from 1985, but I am convinced that this piece does not exist. Neither John White nor Philip Clark have seen nor heard this piece, and Anwen Pierce of the National Library of Wales reports “I have been unable to see any reference to a piece entitled Legend.” E-mail message from Anwen Pierce to Tom Tatton, March 9, 2009.

11 Harry Danks, “Kenneth Harding,” in British Viola Players (see note 2), 115.

12 Letter from Kenneth Harding to Tom Tatton, August 16, 1979.

13 Philip Clark, “Kenneth Harding: The Viola Is His Life,” Journal of the American Viola Society 5, no. 3 (Fall 1989): 3.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Letter from Kenneth Harding to Tom Tatton, July 17, 1978.

17 “John Coulling,” in British Viola Players (see note 2), 68.

18   “Gwynne Edwards,” in British Viola Players (see note 2), 88–89.

19 There are interesting comments in the review found in “Editorial Notes,” Strad (April 1950): 357. The editor writes: “The sound of violas … has a characteristic flavour of its own which could not be produced by any other means. Mr. Harding has written very suitable music, which exploits the intellectual and distinctly unsentimental character of the viola.”

20 Letter from Kenneth Harding to Tom Tatton, July 17, 1978.

21 There is no work titled Green Apples by Kenneth Harding. The confusion originated when Frank Stiles titled Moonlit Apples wrongly as Green Apples. This was picked up by The Seventh Catalogue of Contemporary Welsh Music compiled by Dr. Robert Smith. Further, Moonlit Apples is listed in Philip Clark’s catalogue (Welsh Music 1, no. 6 (1991): 17–18) as having been composed in 1985, but the manuscript bears the date of March 1979. Finally, Wikipedia (under the entry “List of compositions for viola: F to K”) further confuses the issue by listing both Moonlit Apples (supplying Clark’s incorrect dating of 1985) and the fictitious work, Green Apples, with a date of 1979.

22 Letter from Kenneth Harding to Tom Tatton, November 26, 1979.

23 Danks, 116.

24 Philip Clark, “Kenneth Harding: The Viola in His Life,” Welsh Music 1, no. 6 (1991): 18.

25 Danks, 116.

26 Ibid.

27 Letter from Kenneth Harding to Tom Tatton (undated).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Clark, Philip.  “Kenneth Harding: The Viola Is His Life.”  Journal of the American Viola

Society 5, no. 3 (Fall 1989): 3–7.

———. “Kenneth Harding: The Viola in His Life.” Welsh Music 1, no.6 (1991): 17–18.

(Note, this is a later and more detailed version of the above.)

“Editorial Notes.” Strad (April 1950): 355–57.

Riley, Maurice W. The History of the Viola. 2 vols. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Braun-Brumfield,

1980–1991.

Tertis, Lionel. Cinderella No More. London: Peter Nevill, 1953.

———. My Viola and I: A Complete Autobiography. London: Paul Elek, 1974.

White, John, ed. An Anthology of British Viola Players. Colne, UK: Comus Edition,

1997.

———. Lionel Tertis: The First Great Virtuoso of the Viola. Woodbridge, UK:

Boydell Press, 2006.

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